Glossary

  • Copyright terms for educators and students

    Bibliography:
    An alphabetical list of resources.

    Cite:
    To tell where you obtained your information.

    Citation:
    The format to use to cite your information source.
    These websites can help you create a bibliographic citation using the correct format:
    EasyBib
    Research and Style Manual Grades 1-6. Kathy Schrock. Includes note-taking, set-up, and more.
    Click on conventions to view common abbreviations and terms.

    Copyright:
    A law that guarantees the author’s words or the illustrator’s pictures cannot be used in any way by anyone else, without their permission.

    Copyright Law:
    Copyright law guarantees that the copyright owner’s words or illustrations are protected from being copied, used, or performed without their permission.

    Copyright symbol:
    The letter c in a circle ©.

    Image copyright:
    Images such as photos, illustrations, or drawing are copyrighted. To use an image from a Web site you must cite the source.

    Plagiarize:
    To plagiarize is to copy someone else’s work and claim it is your own.

    Reproduction:
    Any duplication or copying of copyrighted material. To reproduce a work, you need permission from the copyright owner.

    Stealing:
    To take someone else’s property without permission.


    Copyright terms for educators and students

    Bibliography:
    An alphabetical list of resources.

    Cite:
    To tell where you obtained your information.

    Citation:
    The format to use to cite your information source.
       These websites can help you create a bibliographic citation using the correct format:
    EasyBib
    Research and Style Manual - Grades 7-12. Kathy Schrock. Note-taking, works cited with examples, and more.
       Click on conventions to view common abbreviations and terms.

    Copyright:
    A law that guarantees the author’s words or the illustrator’s pictures cannot be used in any way by anyone else, without their permission.

    Copyright Law:
    Copyright law guarantees that the copyright owner’s words or illustrations are protected from being copied, used, or performed without their permission.

    Copyright symbol:
    The letter c in a circle ©

    Image copyright:
    Images such as photos, illustrations, or drawing are copyrighted. To use an image from a Web site you must cite the source.

    License:
    When you buy a subscription to a web site or software, the license is the agreement between you and the company/publisher. The license defines what you can do and what you cannot do.

    Multimedia:
    Communicating information using sound, video, and text.

    Plagiarize:
    To plagiarize is to copy someone else’s work and claim it is your own.

    Reproduction:
    Any duplication or copying of copyrighted material. To reproduce a work, you need permission from the copyright owner.

    Stealing:
    To take someone else’s property without permission.

    Webliography:
    A bibliography of web resources you used.


    Copyright terms for educators and students

    Adaptation:
    Work that has been recast in a new form. In educational settings, adaptation might be permissible under Fair Use. For example, parody is allowed.

    Anonymous work:
    A work in which no author is identified.

    Attribution:
    The process of identifying the creator of a visual art or piece of work and acknowledging it came from another source.

    Audio Visual Works:
    Works that consist of a series of related images which are intrinsically intended to be shown by the use of machines or devices such as projectors, viewers, or electronic equipment, together with accompanying sounds, if any, regardless of the nature of the material objects, such as films or tapes, in which the works are embodied.

    Bibliography:
    An alphabetical list of resources on a common theme.

    Bibliographic citation:
    A specific resource within a bibliography that follows a specific format or style. A basic citation should include the author or editor, title, place of publication, publisher and copyright date.

    Bootleg:
    An unauthorized copy of a video or audio recording created by ripping, burning, or other method of duplication without payment or permission.

    Burn:
    The process of using a computer’s CD or DVD burner to copy audio, video, or text data onto a disk or external hard drive.

    Cite:
    To make reference to an information source or a quoted passage. The format to be used in citing a resource depends on the material used.

    Citation:
    The act of citing an information source, using a specified format determined by the nature of the information source consulted, for the purpose of identifying the original source. A citation includes information necessary to locate the source of the work cited, including author, title, publisher, place of publication (or Web address) and copyright date.

    Clip:
    A segment of a video or media file that contains audio, video, graphics or other media content

    Collective Work:
    Awork, such as a periodical issue, anthology, or encyclopedia, in which a number of contributions, constituting separate and independent works in themselves, are assembled into a collective whole.

    Common Knowledge:
    Information that is so well known or readily available from a multitude of resource that there is no need to cite the source.

    Compilation:
    A work formed by the collection and assembling of preexisting materials or of data that are selected, coordinated, or arranged in such a way that the resulting work as a whole constitutes an original work of authorship. The term “compilation” includes collective works.

    Copyright:
    A legal concept that grants exclusive rights to the owner of a piece of work in a variety of formats. These rights include granting permission for use, performance, or adaptation, and to be the recipient of any financial gains that result from the work. Copyright does not last forever. After a specified period of time, a copyrighted work becomes part of the public domain.

    Copyright Free:
    Refers to materials that are of a sufficient age that the copyright protection has expired, or materials that are in the public domain.

    Copyright Guidelines:
    Refers to what is permitted and not permitted under copyright and Fair Use for teachers and students according to format.

    Copyright Infringement:
    Unauthorized use of copyrighted material.

    Copyright Law:
    Ensures the Intellectual Property rights of the creator to enjoy the benefits of ownership, recognition, and any financial reward that may results from their idea or creation.

    Copyright Notice:
    The identifier placed on a work to identify that a copyright exists. It generally consists of the copyright symbol (©) followed by the name of the copyright owner, and the first year of publication.

    Copyright Owner:
    The owner of copyrighted material has the exclusive right to reproduce make copies, or to perform a work.

    Copyright Protection:
    A work is protected by copyright from the moment the author/creator translates their idea to a fixed form.

    Copyright symbol:
    The letter c in a circle © for print materials, the letter p in a circle ? for audio materials.

    Creative Commons:
    Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization that offers and alternative to full copyright.

    Derivative Work:
    A work based upon one or more preexisting works, such as a translation, musical arrangement, dramatization, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which a work may be recast, transformed, or adapted. A work consisting of editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modifications, which, as a whole, represent an original work of authorship, is a “derivative work”.

    Digital Copyright:
    is copyright as it applies to the use of audiovisual and technology materials in education, providing guidelines for educators and students.

    Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA):
    In effect since 1998, the DMCA addresses copyright issues that have arisen in the digital age. It also implements treaties passed by the World International Intellectual Property Association (WIPA).

    Derivative work:
    A piece of work that is based on (derived from) a copyrighted work. A“derivative work” is a work based upon one or more preexisting works, such as a translation, musical arrangement, dramatization, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which a work may be recast, transformed, or adapted. A work consisting of editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modifications, which, as a whole, represent an original work of authorship, is a “derivative work”.

    Fair Use Act:
    A pending update to the DMCA as of 2007. Passage of the Fair Use Act would make permanent 6 exemptions granted to educators and the classroom.

    Fair Use Doctrine:
    The part of copyright law that grants reasonable access to copyright works without permission. To be eligible for fair use, certain factors must be in place. First, the use must be limited to a small amount of the original. Second, the use must be for educational purposes and not depriving the copyright owner of any potential financial gain. Third, is the timeliness factor. Was there sufficient time to ask for permission, or did the need arise spontaneously as a “teachable moment”?. Last is the nature of the work itself – will it be changed in any way? For a more comprehensive look at Fair Use, visit the University of Maryland site.

    Fair Use Guidelines:
    Fair Use of copyrighted materials, including duplication, extends to education for the purpose of teaching, scholarship, and research. There are four factors to apply to determine if Fair Use can be applied: 1) the purpose of the use; 2) nature of the work; 3) the amount of the work that will be used in relation to the whole work; 4) the financial effect on the copyright owner. Note that Fair Use applies in a teacher to student situation, not teacher to teacher. Fair Use can only be applied within the context of a class.

    File Sharing:
    Public or private sharing of computer data. File sharing allows multiple users to view, edit, add to,copy or print the same file.

    Infringement of copyright:
    Also known as copyright violation occurs when there is unauthorized use of materials covered by copyright law.

    Intellectual Property:
    The ownership and exclusive rights to ideas and tangible products that result from ideas.

    Lawfully made:
    Lawfully made copies are those that are made under the permission of the copyright holder as well as under Fair Use.

    License:
    A software license is an agreement between the software company and the purchaser that allows the product to be used.

    Mp3’s:
    A popular music compression format that facilitates distributing sound over the Internet

    Multimedia:
    The assembling of a project that result from materials such as sound, video, and text that are located in CD’s, Books, Internet, and other resources into one disk or storage unit.

    Open Source:
    Software usually created through a collaborative effort whose source code is available to the public for free to update or modify.

    Out of Print:
    A work is considered out of print if a new copy is unavailable for purchase within a reasonable length of time. Out of print does not mean that the work is out of copyright. Check the copyright date first to see if the material is of an age that it is now in the public domain.

    Paraphrase:
    The act of restating text in other words. Changing a few words from a paragraph does not qualify as paraphrasing. To paraphrase, significant changes to the style and voice of the original work must be made while retaining the original idea.

    PDF:
    A file format developed by Adobe, a PDF is portable document format.

    Performance:
    With respect to copyright, to perform a work means to recite it, act it, sing it, dance it, show it ( audiovisual works) or in some way deliver the work either directly or through a device.

    Permission:
    The consent to use or reproduce a work, obtained from the copyright owner.

    Piracy:
    The theft of digital and audiovisual media by duplication without permission for personal use or distribution.

    Plagiarism:
    the work or action of someone who has plagiarized. This includes copying, turning someone else’s work in as your own, and changing just a few words but still using the sentence/paragraph.

    Plagiarize:
    As defined by Merriam Webster’s Dictionary, to plagiarize is to steal or pass off the words or ideas of another and use as one’s own without crediting the source. It also means to present as new or original and idea or product that was derived from an existing source.

    Public Display:
    A legal right granted to the copyright owner by the Copyright Act. It includes showing a work publicly by display or performance in an area open to the public, or to transmit to a public area or areas for viewing by a group of people beyond family or friends.

    Public Domain:
    Materials that are no longer protected by copyright or never were protected by copyright are said to be in the public domain. Materials published by the United States Government are in the public domain and can be used freely without permission.

    Public Performance:
    To perform or transmit a work in a place open to the public or accessible for public viewing to a group of people outside the normal circle of friends and family. The scope of public performance is limited to literary works, musical works, dramatic works, choreographed works, pantomimes, motion pictures and audiovisual works.

    Publication:
    Occurs when copies are first made available for distribution or viewing by the public by sale, lease, rental, or loan.

    RIAA:
    Recording Industry Association of America represents the recording industry and fosters a business and legal climate that supports its members creative and financial rights.

    Rip:
    The act of copying music from a CD into a music file that you can play later on your digital audio player. All kinds of files, including WAV and mp3 files can be “ripped”. Like burning, these files are subject to copyright.

    Share Alike:
    A term used by Creative Commons for copyright licenses that contain certain copy provisions or restrictions.

    Spontaneity:
    A factor in determining if Fair Use applies. The time between making the decision to use the material and actual use must be such that the teacher does not have time to request permission for Fair Use to be applied.

    Teach Act:
    The Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization Act that went into effect in 2002. This act revised the Copyright Law as it applied to the use of copyrighted material for the purpose of education.

    Term of Copyright:
    Time period for which copyright protection endures. For works created after December 31, 1977 copyright begins as soon as the work becomes a tangible form. Generally, the term of copyright extends for the remainder of life of the work’s author plus seventy years. If the work has been created by two authors, this is applied to the death of the last author. For works created anonymously or using pseudonyms, the term of copyright is 125 years from date of publication or 95 years from the date the work was published, based on whichever expires first.

    Sonny Bono Act:
    The Sonny Bono Copyright Extension Act (CETA) was signed into law by President Clinton in 1998. It lengthens the time frame in which copyrighted materials (literary, television and film works, literary characters) would exist before falling into the public domain.

    Works (various formats):
    Literary Works:
    Works that are expressed in words, numbers or other verbal symbols in any format, other than audiovisual materials. Audiovisual Works
    refers to a series of images meant to be shown together via a device with any accompanying sound.
    Sound Recordings
    refers to works that result from a series of musical or spoken sounds that do not accompany audiovisual or motion picture works. Motion Picture works
    refers to an audiovisual work that consists of a series of images that when shown together with any existing sounds that impart a sense of motion.

    Reproduction:
    Any sort of photo duplication of copyright material, or the use of technology to create a duplicate that contains text, sound, images or software application.

    Stealing:
    To take or carry away without right or permission another’s property.

    Transformative Use:
    The act or process of adding something new to a copyrighted work and in the process transforms the work by giving new meaning, message, or expression.

    USA copyright Law:
    dates from 1790. It is authorized by the Constitution and is part of Federal Law, governing and protecting the legal rights of creative and artistic efforts within the United States. For more information, visit the United States Copyright Office.

    .wav:
    An uncompressed audio file used in the Windows environment. .Wav files consume a great deal of space and can be compressed into an Mp3 file.

    Webliography:
    A bibliography of Web resources on a specific topic. For example, all the Internet resources consulted during the course of research. The term originates from the blending of the words web and bibliography.

    Webcitation:
    The act of citing the source for information found on the World Wide Web.

    Wikicommons:
    an internet resource of almost 3 millions free images, sound and other multimedia files.

    WIPO:
    The World Intellectual Property Organization is a special agency of the United Nations. WIPO’s mission is to encourage creative activity and to promote the protection of Intellectual Property worldwide. WIPO established World Internet Property Day in 2001 to raise awareness of Intellectual Property. It is celebrated each year on April 26.